Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of mortality, and the risk of death amongst people with the disease is twice that of people of a similar age without diabetes. Type 2 is the most common form, affecting 90-95% of adults diagnosed with diabetes. In addition to being one of the leading causes of heart disease and stroke, diabetes is also the leading cause of kidney failure, lower limb amputations, and blindness in the United States. The financial burden of diabetes is tremendous. In the United States, total treatment costs rose from $132 billion per year in 2002 to $174 billion per year in 2007. The average yearly health care costs for a person without diabetes is $2,560. For a person with diabetes, that number rises to $11,744. Finally, and perhaps most alarming, along with the epidemic of obesity in the United States comes a marked rise in childhood and adolescent type 2 diabetes. If this trend is not controlled, the toll of diabetes on society is almost unimaginable.
Unfortunately, Monroe County is behind the curve with regards to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diabetes. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 8.5% of adults in Monroe County have been diagnosed with diabetes and 30% of adults in Monroe County are considered to be obese.
This educational activity will provide primary care physicians, pediatricians, mid-level providers, endocrinologists, nephrologists, dieticians, allied health professionals, residents and students with crucial updates in diabetes research and treatment options. This includes updates to guidelines surrounding antihyperglycemic therapy in non-pregnant adults with T2DM developed by the American Diabetes Association and European Association for the Study of Diabetes, in 2012. Furthermore, this forum will arm learners with the tools needed to appropriately and effectively diagnose and manage patients with or at risk for diabetes using a multifaceted and patient-centered approach. Topics to be covered include Type 2 diabetes pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment, incretin based therapies (GLP1), SGLT2 inhibitors, new insulin therapies and delivery devices, bariatric surgery, evolving standards of care, clinical outcomes and diabetes in children.
At the conclusion of this activity, participants should be able to:
- Describe the main aspects of diabetes pathophysiology and which classes of therapeutic agents target which defects;
- Explain to patients that type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease with changing therapeutic needs;
- Incorporate patient education and motivation for self-management in treatment approaches;
- State the modes of action and clinical potential of SGLT-2 inhibitors and incretin-based therapies in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes;
- Discuss the role of combination therapy, when and how it should be initiated based on A1C goals;
- Identify the risks and benefits of bariatric surgery as a treatment modality in selected diabetes patients;
- Outline the clinical considerations in the selection of pharmacotherapy for type 2 diabetes. Specifically, attendees will learn the changes to current ADA/EASD guidelines regarding individualization of glycemic targets;
- Differentiate new treatment strategies with respect to A1C lowering potential, route of administration, effects on weight and/or CV risk factors;
- Differentiate human and insulin analogs from each other in terms of pharmacokinetics, predictability, incidence of hypoglycemia or weight gain, and patient administration;
- Describe novel insulin analogues and delivery technologies with their benefits and drawbacks;
- Review the implications of the epidemic of diabetes in children, its genesis and pathogenesis, and how the medical community can address them;
- Develop strategies to involve other healthcare professionals to support the care of patients with type 2 diabetes;
- Describe how to assess diabetes treatment outcomes; and
- Apply knowledge from this program to daily patient care practices to improve the outcome of patients.