Frauke Hogue, Hogue Metallography

Educational Programming:  Titanium the Ultimate Choice and Metallography of Titanium & Its Alloys
Frauke Hogue, FASM, received her education in metallography and testing of materials in Berlin, Germany.

In 1967 she moved to the Los Angeles area and worked for Voi-Shan, a manufacturer of aerospace fasteners, in the Quality Control laboratory for 10 years. 1981 Frauke became an independent consultant in metallography, working mainly in the greater Los Angeles area, providing metallographic services to failure analysis companies.

Since 1985 she has been teaching intensive courses at ASM International and at companies throughout the United States and abroad. Frauke developed "Practical Interpretation of Microstructures" in 1998 which consists of a collection of about 300 mounts and a notebook of annotated images of various materials and conditions. This was followed by "Metallography for Fasteners" and "Metallography for Failure Analysis".

Richard Aboulafia, TEAL Group
Flying Through Chaos
A look at all major aircraft market segments, including jetliners, combat aircraft, rotorcraft, and business jets.  We'll examine the market's recent history, demand drivers, and macroeconomic and geopolitical factors behind our deliveries forecast for the next decade.  We'll also look at competitive dynamics in each market segment, identifying winner and loser programs. 

Richard Aboulafia is Vice President of Analysis at Teal Group and edits their World Military and Civil Aircraft Briefing, a forecasting tool. His job description also includes managing consulting projects in the commercial and military aircraft field and he analyzes broader defense and aerospace trends.

He is a prominent aircraft industry analyst.  He regularly appears on such media outlets as ABC, BBC, Bloomberg, Reuters, CBS, CNN, NBC, NPR and PBS.  He is a Contributing Columnist at Aviation Week, and contributes to Forbes.
Henry Seiner, TIMET, Titanium Metals Corporation
Aerospace Airframes & Engines
Mr. Seiner oversees the Marketing, Product Management, Purchasing and Production Planning organizations for TIMET. In this role, he has responsibility for and visibility into all aspects of TIMET’s supply chain.  Henry is based in TIMET's Toronto, OH facility which is geographically and structurally located in the middle of TIMET's global supply chain. He has held various positions in Production Planning, Manufacturing, Purchasing and Marketing in his 25 year tenure at TIMET.  Hecurrently serves as Past President of the ITA. 

Henry oversees the Marketing, Product Management, Purchasing and Production Planning organizations for TIMET. In this role, he has responsibility for and visibility into all aspects of TIMET’s supply chain.  Henry is based in TIMET's Pittsburgh office which is geographically located in the middle of TIMET's global supply chain. He has held various positions in Production Planning, Manufacturing, Purchasing and Marketing in his 28 year tenure at TIMET.  He currently serves as Past President of the ITA.

His educational background includes a Masters Degree from Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, PA and a Bachelors Degree from Duke University in Durham, NC.

Ron Krajcik, Tricor Metals
Titanium in the Chemical Processing Industry
The Industrial Market for titanium is comprised of a number of different segments, with slightly different focuses in different regions of the world. In the past, at previous ITA meetings, this talk has offered a broad overview of all of the industrial applications – from the power industry to desalination to shipbuilding and architecture as well as the Chemical Process Industry.

Our presentation today will, instead, be focused on just one Key market in the Industrial Applications universe – the Chemical Processing Industry – with only slight mentions of potential applications
in other areas in the future.   In the Chemical Processing Industry, titanium is used in a wide variety of environments and competes against other Materials of Construction such as nickel alloys, copper alloys and non-metallics. I will discuss some of the uses and show the potential for titanium in each of these.

While the use of titanium has been growing in these applications, the potential for titanium has not kept up with the growth of the CPI – primarily due to a lack of understanding of titanium’ advantages,
lack of focus from the titanium industry, and an overwhelming abundance of marketing and sales for competing materials.

The Chemical Processing Industry worldwide is forecast to grow at a rate of 3% in 2020 and continue at that level or higher into the next decade, with capital spending up an average of 4.9% each year.  This
is higher than the projected growth of the US economy in that same time frame.  The titanium industry can advance and take advantage of this increasing market by emphasizing the Chemical Processing Industry requirements in the industry’s sales and marketing efforts  – confronting
the competition head-on with the many benefits of titanium.

Ron is the Director of Sales and Marketing for Tricor Metals responsible for marketing, sales, engineering, and quality.  He is also responsible for operations management of their Astrolite and Tricor Alloys divisions. 
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Stephen Sunderland, L.E.K Consulting
Next Wave of Orthopedic Growth
An overview of the China market and understanding the regulatory landscape and the commercial and market dynamics for orthopedics in China.

Stephen Sunderland is a Partner based in L.E.K. Consulting’s Shanghai office and has more than 15 years of experience spanning China and Europe, advising clients on value-maximizing growth strategy. He has worked with major multinational companies, midsize companies, social enterprises and nonprofits, financial investors, and governments.

He has led a wide range of engagement types focused on profitable organic development, including valuation and prioritization of opportunities, multibillion-dollar contract structuring/evaluation/bidding, and definition of new propositions and operating models.

His experience in supporting inorganic growth includes defining partnering models, partner/target prioritization and supplier, commercial and vendor due diligence.
Tingting Song, RMIT University

Additively Manufactured Titanium Artworks
Titanium and titanium alloys are advanced metallic materials that are uniquely suited to the manufacture of long-lasting artworks. Additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D Printing offers unprecedented design freedom and manufacturability for the manufacture of intricate and complex designs of artworks. This talk discusses a range of selected examples of titanium artworks additively manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM) and selective electron beam melting (SEBM) processes. It is shown that additive manufacturing by either SLM or SEBM has enabled the design and manufacture of titanium artworks with remarkable fine features.

Dr Tingting Song is a research fellow working at Centre for Additive Manufacturing, School of Engineering,  RMIT University, Australia. She completed her PhD on Materials and Manufacturing Engineering at RMIT in 2016. Her research has been focusing on the development of low-cost and high-performance Ti-alloys via metal additive manufacturing. She also does research on biomimetic design and advanced manufacturing of functional porous metallic materials. Up to 2019, she has one Australian Patent, two book chapters and 27 peer-reviewed journal papers (ten first-authored) in major journals in the field including Acta Materialia, Corrosion Science and Electrochimica Acta.

Nicholas Corby, ELG Utica Alloys
Titanium Scrap Trends Impacts of a Dynamic Market
The utilization of Titanium Scrap has become an increasingly important part of the Supply Chain for our Industry.  It is recognized as a cost savings in relationship to sponge; viewed as a commitment to “green” initiatives where recycling has a substantial environmental impact.  As the Aerospace Industry matures and becomes more global, scrap flows have moved further away from their historic melting regions.  The impact of this shift in terms of economy can be measured in the cost of returning material to historic scrap Melters, and increasing pressure for new Melters to incorporate higher percentages of scrap in their Supply Chain. The management of these flows for Melters, OEM’s,and Processors will has become increasingly difficult and presents one of the most difficult challenges to the Titanium Scrap Industry since its inception.

Nick Corby, ELG Utica Alloys Titanium Product Manager, oversees the Business Development, Marketing, Purchasing, and Sales worldwide for EUA.  Prior to EUA, Nick worked at TIMET for 19 years, moving from Scrap Processing, Melt Formulation, and Raw Materials Management during his tenure.  Educational background includes a B.A. from West Chester University.  He is a native of Southeastern, PA where he continues to reside with his family.
Michael Marucci, Ametek Reading Alloys
Master Alloys
Titanium is a critical material for aerospace, medical, and other industries and by extension, so are master alloys. However, the raw material markets that support the supply chain for titanium metal production are completely dependent on the performance of the steel industry.

While the direction of the titanium and steel industries generally align, they sometimes do not and that can cause either angst or happiness depending on the misalignment. So while attention is focused on the market dynamics associated with the titanium industry and its end use applications, an understanding of the drivers and direction of the steel demand are vital in developing plans to ensure adequate supply of critical raw materials.

The presentation will examine markets for key master alloy raw materials and how they tie into their use by the steel industry. An updated look at the key raw materials will be included, especially focusing on vanadium in light of recent dramatic market swings, and we will also show projected steel demand and its drivers. We will then examine the titanium scrap/titanium sponge dynamic and its effect on master alloy demand and then we will finish with our view of master alloy demand going forward.

Michael Marucci is the Vice President Sales and Marketing for Powders for Ametek Specialty Metal Products (SMP), a division of Ametek, Inc. The division, which includes Reading Alloys, Hamilton Precision Metals, Superior Tube, Fine Tubes, SMP Eighty Four and SMP Wallingford, manufactures high purity alloy powders and master alloys, as well as precision metal tubes, strip and foil at six manufacturing facilities in the USA and UK, with sales offices across the globe. Mr. Marucci is responsible for establishing the strategy, execution and implementation of all sales and marketing activities related to titanium master alloys, titanium powders and water and gas atomised powders.
Mia Ma, Argus Media Limited
Chinese Titanium Sponge Market Review and Forecast
The presentation is dedicated to make a review of the Chinese titanium sponge market in the past 2019, which surged to a seven-year high, and analyze the reason behind the increase.

China is the largest titanium sponge producer in the world. The presentation starts with an introduction to titanium sponge distribution and then describes the production and exports in the past few years. Through analysing the price rise in 2019 we collected that magnesium metal, titanium tetrachloride, environmental inspections, increased demand from demand from the downstream chemicals, aerospace, medical and military industries and other factors that contributed to the sharp growth. The conclusion comes to find that these factors will also play an important role in 2020 and influence the price fluctuations.

Mia Ma is China analyst of Nonferrous Metals for Argus based in Beijing. She joined Argus metals team as an analyst and covered ferroalloys & minor metal market in 2016. Earlier, she had an almost two-year analysis career in Asian Metal.
Eugene Ivanov, Tosoh SMD, Inc.
Additive Manufacturing of Atomized Ti-1Al-8V-5Fe by Laser Powder Bed Fusion
The inherent fast cooling rates during laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) of Ti-185 solve the segregation problem that plagued the material since 1960s during casting. Consequently, the design flexibility of AM combined with the high-strength and ductility of the heat-treatable Ti-185 opens the doors to many applications in various industries. However, the atomized powder required for AM was not commercially available before the current work. To establish the needed data for wider use of the alloy, characterization of the atomized powder will be presented followed by evaluation of the mechanical properties after LPBF in the as-built, heat-treated, and after hot isostatic pressing (HIP) conditions. Room temperature tensile testing of the as-built Ti-185 resulted in 1022 MPa UTS, 84 GPa Young's modulus and 8.3% ductility. HIP treatment followed by annealing increased the UTS and Young's modulus to 1327MPa and 107 GPa , respectively, while decreasing ductility to 4.5%. Microstructure evolution of the as-built Ti-185 after heat treatment and HIP will also be shown.

Doctor of Philosophy in 1976, Novosibirsk State University 1974 Doctor of Science in 1991, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kiev Institute of Material Science EMPLOYMENT HISTORY 06/2014 – Present: Chief Technology Officer, Tosoh SMD Inc. 2002: Director of Technology, Tosoh SMD Inc. 2000: Powder Materials Group leader, Tosoh SMD Inc. 1993:State Award in Science from Russian Federation 1992: Senior Engineer. Tosoh SMD Inc. 1991: Visiting professor , Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan 1979: Director of Laboratory, Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Novosibirsk , Russia. Published 169 papers, authored 46 patents.

Nduduzo Sibisi, Tshwane University of Technology
3D Computational Modelling of Thermal Distribution during Direct Metal Laser Deposition (DMLD) of Ti-6Al-4V alloy
The present work focuses on the development of a 3D computational model to simulate the physical phenomena based on Heat transfers involved in during additive manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy by a laser-assisted direct energy deposition technique. Comsol Multiphysics 5.2a was used to create a model using Heat transfer in solids module incorporating temperature distribution during the layer-wise build-up of 10 layers. The effects of heat accumulation as a result of layer-by-layer build up is discussed herein based on the impact it has on average, minimum and maximum temperatures.

PN Sibisi holds a MEng in Metallurgical and is currently a Doctoral Researcher at the Tshwane University of Technology. His research interest is on additive manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V alloy as well as modelling and simulation of this production process for optimization.
Alexandre Bois-Brochu, CMQ
Optimization of Heat Treatment for Ti-6Al-4V Produced by Wire Fed Directed Energy Deposition
Parts presenting casting defects linked to the surface are usually discarded. The use of wire based directed energy deposition (DED), allows repairing such parts, which decreases the ratio of rejected parts, therefore increasing production efficiency. This presentation will show that that both powder fed DED and wire fed DED can be used efficiently to repair or build Ti-6Al-4V parts. The presentation will cover the capacity CMT to be used to build Ti-6Al-4V efficiently, the influence of heat treatment on Ti-6Al-4V parts produced by wire based DED and also the influence of shielding gas on the quality of Ti-6Al-4V deposits produced by CMT.  Wire based Directed energy deposition such as Cold Metal Transfer (CMT) can . Furthermore, it can produce full parts with sound microstructure and high mechanical properties. However, the standard heat treatment are designed for wrought parts or are not optimized for 3D printed DED produced parts. For this reason, specimens were printed using DED in order to optimize mechanical properties as a function of heat treatment. Grade 5 Ti-6Al-4V wire (ERTi-5) was used for this optimization. Following production, the specimens were submitted to multiple heat treatments in accordance with AMS 4999 and AMS 2801. The objective was to select existing heat treatment conditions, which would allow quick implementation in production of Ti-6Al-4V parts.  The specimens were inspected by radiography and ultrasonic testing and the results show that they were conform to standards. The microstructure was evaluated throughout as a function of the heat treatment to better understand the effect on mechanical properties. The resulting mechanical properties were shown to be higher than the requirements for wrought, cast parts and parts produced by DED.

Dr Alexandre Bois-Brochu has been working at the Quebec Metallurgy Center (CMQ) as a R&D project manager since 2012.
Deepak Sharma, Coventry University and Deakin University
The Aging Response of Direct Laser Deposited Metastable β-Ti alloy
The additive manufacturing methods are getting wider attention for the fabrication of titanium alloy parts in the aerospace industry. This is because of the improved scientific understanding of the methods, and their ability to produce intricate shapes in shorter times with less wastage of material. Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–3Cr wt% (Ti-5553), a metastable β-Ti alloy, offers high specific strength and deep hardenability finding usage in aerospace applications such as landing gears. However, due to rapid cooling rates associated with additive manufacturing, the microstructure of the as-deposited Ti-5553 β-Ti alloy is quite distinct and consists of solely β-phase, that does not provide the required material properties. The ageing response and the resulting properties of the as-deposited Ti-5553 β-Ti alloy are not well understood.

Hence, we present a study into ageing response of Ti-5553 β-Ti alloy deposited using Direct Laser Deposition (DLD) that has the capability to directly produce complex aerospace parts. The different post-processing pathways (single and duplex ageing) for as-deposited samples were explored to critically understand the influence of heat treatment upon part microstructure and the mechanical properties.

The results showed that the as-deposited samples exhibited the presence of solely β-phase microstructure due to the rapid cooling. The as-deposited samples also showed the presence of elemental segregation due to the formation of sub-structures within the β-phase matrix.
Modupeola Dada, Tshwane University of Technology
Effect of Heat Treatment on Ti-Based High Entropy Alloys for Aerospace Applications
In the aerospace industry, aircraft engine parts are required to be wear and corrosion-resistant while withstanding extreme atmospheric conditions. These parts are sometimes expensive to maintain over time therefore, reducing the cost of maintenance can be achieved by applying laser surface treatments. Laser cladding is the process of fusing different metals to a substrate or base plate surface without melting the substrate and surface coating has been reported to be an effective laser surface treatment. However, reports on the effect of heat treatment on the thermodynamic stability of high entropy alloys by laser surface coatings are limited. In this study, Titanium-based high entropy alloy was prepared by laser cladding for aerospace wear-resistant applications. The constituent phases, chemical composition, micro-hardness and structural morphologies of the coatings on a steel base plate were characterized using XRD, EDS, Vickers Microhardness tester and SEM respectively in the clad state and after annealing at temperatures of 600-1200â—¦C. The results showed the alloys exhibited grain size refinement after heat treatment with distinctive microstructural features. The quantifiable correlation between the chemical and phase compositions of the alloys and their respective hardness values are discussed.

Modupeola Dada is currently a Doctoral Student at the Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa. Her interest is in additive manufacturing, materials engineering and engineering metallurgy.
Gary Lantzke, Callidus Welding Solutions
Developments In Titanium Surface Modification
This presentation explores the developments in surface modification of Titanium and its alloys. A patented method for the introduction of beta stabilising elements and their effects on corrosion and erosion. A comparison of mass loss data across various alloying elements using ASTM high and low stress abrasion testing and specific high temperature Sulphuric acid testing. Preliminary trial results in HPAL and PoX service.

Gary is a trade background Certified Aircraft Welder and Qualified Welding Inspector  Gary is currently the C.E.O. of Callidus Welding Solutions, an exotic metals maintenance and fabrication company located in Western Australia, dealing exclusively with companies operating in the Nickel Laterite extraction, Gold Pressure Oxidization and Oil and Gas processing industries.   Gary was a founding Director and Investor in K-Tig, a highly disruptive high speed welding technology based in S.A. derived from technology created at C.S.I.R.O.  Gary is a strong supporter of innovation within the titanium industry and has long term associations in Australia with key research organisations such as CSIRO, Deakin University and Materials Australia. He maintains professional memberships with The Welding Institute (TWI) and Weld Australia as well as fellowships with the Australian Institute of Management.
Dieter Kaufhold, ALD Vacuum Technologies GmbH

Titanium Melting Techniques
Depending on Titanium material grade, raw material input specification and final material specification with regards to matter, size, shape, chemical composition and other metallurgical parameters a wide range of different melting processes has to be applied for production of Titanium ingots and semi-finished products. This paper presents an overview about the different state of the art Titanium melting processes, covering the production of Titanium ingots made of virgin material, over the recycling of scrap and revert material from downstream processes to the casting of Titanium near net shape products and the production of Titanium based powders for the use in 3D-printing applications.  As the market leader in Titanium melting ALD Vacuum Technologies GmbH covers the complete variety of the a.m. different melting techniques with its delivery portfolio. Based on the long term experience in Titanium processing with almost 60 years ALD Vacuum Technologies can give significant contributions to any Titanium melting project.

Mr. Kaufhold received his Degree in Mechanical Engineering in 1990 from the Technical University of Darmstadt and started his career as a Technical Manager at OFRU-Recycling, a producer of vacuum distillation equipment.  In 2008 he joined the sales group of ALD Remelting Department, concentrating on ALD´s Titanium business.  From his start at ALD he has always been involved in the further development and optimization of ALD´s remelting equipment and processes for the Titanium Industry.